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Current is a flow of electrical charge carriers, usually electrons or electron-deficient atoms. The common symbol for current is the uppercase letter I. The standard unit is the ampere, symbolized by A. One ampere of current represents one coulomb of electrical charge (6.24 x 1018 charge carriers) moving past a specific point in one second. Physicists consider current to flow from relatively positive points to relatively negative points; this is called conventional current or Franklin current. Electrons, the most common charge carriers, are negatively charged. They flow from relatively negative points to relatively positive points.

Electric current can be either direct or alternating. Direct current (DC) flows in the same direction at all points in time, although the instantaneous magnitude of the current might vary. In an alternating current (AC), the flow of charge carriers reverses direction periodically. The number of complete AC cycles per second is the frequency, which is measured in hertz. An example of pure DC is the current produced by an electrochemical cell. The output of a power-supply rectifier, prior to filtering, is an example of pulsating DC. The output of common utility outlets is AC.

Current per unit cross-sectional area is known as current density. It is expressed in amperes per square meter, amperes per square centimetre, or amperes per square millimetre. Current density can also be expressed in amperes per circular mil. In general, the greater the current in a conductor, the higher the current density. However, in some situations, current density varies in different parts of an electrical conductor. A classic example is the so-called skin effect, in which current density is high near the outer surface of a conductor, and low near the centre. This effect occurs with alternating currents at high frequencies. Another example is the current inside an active electronic component such as a field-effect transistor (FET).

An electric current always produces a magnetic field. The stronger the current, the more intense the magnetic field. A pulsating DC, or an AC, characteristically produces an electromagnetic field. This is the principle by which wireless signal propagation occurs.

EAS is a group of highly experienced professionals working in oil and gas industry whose goal is to be the best provider of Control and Automation based services from conception to Engineering, Design and detailing, installing, commissioning and hand over to customer. We achieve this goal by specializing exclusively in the project management of EAS plans.

Specialization means providing quality services to industries, professionals who are working in Industrial automation, students. In our pursuit of absolute quality, we will maintain a quantitative means of measuring our progress towards this objective.

 

Industrial Automation is the use of Control Systems, such as computers or robots, and information technologies for handling different processes and machineries in an industry to replace a human being. It is the second step beyond mechanization in the scope of industrialization

 

Ohm’s law

 

Main article: Ohm’s law

 

Ohm’s law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points. Introducing the constant of proportionality, the resistance, one arrives at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship

I = V \ R

where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. More specifically, Ohm’s law states that the R in this relation is constant, independent of the current.

 

Alternating and direct current

 

See also: War of the currents

In alternating current (AC) systems, the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction. AC is the form of electric power most delivered to businesses and residences. The usual waveform of an AC power circuit is a sine wave, though certain applications use alternative waveforms, such as triangular or square waves. Audio and radio signals carried on electrical wires are also examples of alternating current. An important goal in these applications is recovery of information encoded (or modulated) onto the AC signal.

In contrast, direct current (DC) refers to a system in which the movement of electric charge in only one direction (sometimes called unidirectional flow). Direct current is produced by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Alternating current can also be converted to direct current through use of a rectifier. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams. An old name for direct current was galvanic current

Current measurement

Current can be measured using an ammeter.

Electric current can be directly measured with a galvanometer, but this method involves breaking the electrical circuit, which is sometimes inconvenient.

Current can also be measured without breaking the circuit by detecting the magnetic field associated with the current. Devices, at the circuit level, use various techniques to measure current:

   Current is a flow of electrical charge carriers, usually electrons or electron-deficient atoms. The common symbol for current is the uppercase letter I. The standard unit is the ampere, symbolized by A. One ampere of current represents one coulomb of electrical charge (6.24 x 1018 charge carriers) moving past a specific point in one second. Physicists consider current to flow from relatively positive points to relatively negative points; this is called conventional current or Franklin current. Electrons, the most common charge carriers, are negatively charged. They flow from relatively negative points to relatively positive points.

Electric current can be either direct or alternating. Direct current (DC) flows in the same direction at all points in time, although the instantaneous magnitude of the current might vary. In an alternating current (AC), the flow of charge carriers reverses direction periodically. The number of complete AC cycles per second is the frequency, which is measured in hertz. An example of pure DC is the current produced by an electrochemical cell. The output of a power-supply rectifier, prior to filtering, is an example of pulsating DC. The output of common utility outlets is AC.

Current per unit cross-sectional area is known as current density. It is expressed in amperes per square meter, amperes per square centimetre, or amperes per square millimetre. Current density can also be expressed in amperes per circular mil. In general, the greater the current in a conductor, the higher the current density. However, in some situations, current density varies in different parts of an electrical conductor. A classic example is the so-called skin effect, in which current density is high near the outer surface of a conductor, and low near the centre. This effect occurs with alternating currents at high frequencies. Another example is the current inside an active electronic component such as a field-effect transistor (FET).

An electric current always produces a magnetic field. The stronger the current, the more intense the magnetic field. A pulsating DC, or an AC, characteristically produces an electromagnetic field. This is the principle by which wireless signal propagation occurs.

 EAS is a group of highly experienced professionals working in oil and gas industry whose goal is to be the best provider of Control and Automation based services from conception to Engineering, Design and detailing, installing, commissioning and hand over to customer. 


We achieve this goal by specializing exclusively in the project management of EAS plans.

Specialization means providing quality services to industries, professionals who are working in Industrial automation, students. In our pursuit of absolute quality, we will maintain a quantitative means of measuring our progress towards this objective.

 

Industrial Automation is the use of Control Systems, such as computers or robots, and information technologies for handling different processes and machineries in an industry to replace a human being. It is the second step beyond mechanization in the scope of industrialization

 

Ohm’s law

 

Main article: Ohm’s law

 

Ohm’s law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points. Introducing the constant of proportionality, the resistance, one arrives at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship

I = V \ R

where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. More specifically, Ohm’s law states that the R in this relation is constant, independent of the current.

 

Alternating and direct current

 

See also: War of the currents

In alternating current (AC) systems, the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction. AC is the form of electric power most delivered to businesses and residences. The usual waveform of an AC power circuit is a sine wave, though certain applications use alternative waveforms, such as triangular or square waves. Audio and radio signals carried on electrical wires are also examples of alternating current. An important goal in these applications is recovery of information encoded (or modulated) onto the AC signal.

In contrast, direct current (DC) refers to a system in which the movement of electric charge in only one direction (sometimes called unidirectional flow). Direct current is produced by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Alternating current can also be converted to direct current through use of a rectifier. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams. An old name for direct current was galvanic current

Current measurement

 

Current can be measured using an ammeter.

Electric current can be directly measured with a galvanometer, but this method involves breaking the electrical circuit, which is sometimes inconvenient.

Current can also be measured without breaking the circuit by detecting the magnetic field associated with the current. Devices, at the circuit level, use various techniques to measure current:

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